employing physiological response

Current advances in wireless wearable biometrics devices allow for real-time distinction of cognitive and emotional states of mind. External input devices measuring heart beat rate, movement patterns, or galvanic skin response of the participants can be used as indicators of the experienced training difficulty level.

KoTA tools incorporate biometrics for automatic level adjustment to facilitate training. In this way an optimal arousal can be achieved, balancing the task difficulty between being too easy, which could lower someone’s motivation, and being too difficult, which could generate frustration.


Rollerball features heart rate measurement of the player through a heart rate monitor (MioLink wrist band). The devices are connected via bluetooth.


Cognitive flexibility tool

When the training task is performed without feedback about player's cognitive or emotional state, each level becomes more difficult. So, irrespective of the performance, tasks and game elements, as well as speed tend to steadily increase across levels. This can possibly overwhelm the player and hinder the training.

Automatic level optimization

Rollerball features heart rate measurement that can be implemented for automatic level and speed adjustment. Finding an optimal arousal level is important for player's comfort, while ensuring that the task is still challenging and demanding to facilitate training.